Neem oil, also known as margosa oil, is a vegetable oil pressed from the fruits and seeds of the neem (Azadirachta indica), a tree which is indigenous to the Indian subcontinent and has been introduced to many other areas in the tropics. It is the most important of the commercially available products of neem and is used for organic farming and medicines.
Azadirachtin is the most well known and studied triterpenoid in neem oil. Nimbin is another triterpenoid which has been credited with some of neem oil's properties as an antiseptic, antifungal, antipyretic and antihistamine.
The ingestion of neem oil is potentially toxic and can cause metabolic acidosis, seizures, kidney failure, encephalopathy and severe brain ischemia in infants and young children. Neem oil should not be consumed alone without any other solutions, particularly by pregnant women, women trying to conceive, or children. It can also be associated with allergic contact dermatitis.
Formulations made of neem oil also find wide usage as a biopesticide for horticulturists and for organic farming, as it repels a wide variety of pests including the mealy bug, beet armyworm, aphids, the cabbage worm, thrips, whiteflies, mites, fungus gnats, beetles, moth larvae, mushroom flies, leafminers, caterpillars, locust, nematodes and the Japanese beetle. Neem oil is not known to be harmful to mammals, birds, earthworms or some beneficial insects such as butterflies, honeybees and ladybugs if it is not concentrated directly into their area of habitat or on their food source. It can be used as a household pesticide for ant, bedbug, cockroach, housefly, sand fly, snail, termite and mosquitoes both as repellent and larvicide.
Neem oil is a naturally occurring pesticide found in seeds from the neemtree. It is yellow to brown, has a bitter taste, and a garlic/sulfur smell. It hasbeen used for hundreds of years to control pests and diseases. Componentsof neem oil can be found in many products today. These include toothpaste,cosmetics, soaps, and pet shampoos. Neem oil is a mixture of components.Azadirachtin is the most active component for repelling and killing pestsand can be extracted from neem oil. The portion left over is called clarifiedhydrophobic neem oil.
Neem oil is made of many components. Azadirachtin is the most active.It reduces insect feeding and acts as a repellent. It also interferes withinsect hormone systems, making it harder for insects to grow and layeggs. Azadirachtin can also repel and reduce the feeding of nematodes.Other components of neem oil kill insects by hindering their ability tofeed. However, the exact role of every component is not known.
People can be exposed to chemicals by eating them, breathing themin, through skin contact and eye contact. Since neem oil is used on a variety of crops, people are mainly exposed toneem oil in their diet. People who apply neem oil may also be exposed if they inhale the mist or dust, let the producttouch their skin, or fail to wash their hands before eating or smoking. However, the label includes directions for keepingexposure low. For example the label might require applicators to wear protective clothing.
Neem oil can be slightly irritating to the eyes and skin. Azadirachtin, a componentof neem oil, can be very irritating to the skin and stomach. The remaining portionof neem oil is made of fatty acids, essential oils and other substances that are commonlyeaten in a normal diet. These substances are generally recognized as safe(GRAS) by the United States Food and Drug Administration.
In other countries, neem oil has been used on cats for flea control. Some adversereactions have been reported. Symptoms include feeling sluggish, excessive salivation,impaired movement, trembling, twitching, and convulsions. Some of the catsdied. However, most of them recovered within 1 to 5 days.
Clarified hydrophobic neem oil (without azadirachtin) is made of fatty acids and glycerides. These substances arecommonly found in food. When they enter the body, they are broken down, used for energy, and incorporated intocells.In one study, scientists injected insects with azadirachtin. They found 90% of the dose in the insects' feces within 7hours. The remaining portion lingered in the insects' bodies for 24 days after the injection.
No. People have been exposed to neem oil in many ways for hundreds of years. During this time no association withincreased cancer risk has been found. Studies showed that neem oil did not alter or damage genes. In laboratory tests,animals were fed neem oil for 90 days. They did not have increased cancer rates.
Further, one study found that certain components of neem oil caused cancer cells in hamsters to stop growing or die.Another study looked at prostate cancer cells from humans. Researchers found that neem leaf extract was able toslow their growth.
In general, children may be especially sensitive to pesticides compared to adults. When rats were fed neem oil in onestudy, their pregnancies ended. In another study, rats were fed azadirachtin in their diet throughout their lives. Noeffects to their offspring were found. Additionally, neem oil is used in toothpaste, cosmetics, soaps and traditionalmedicines around the world. Therefore, people of all ages are commonly exposed to neem oil. No data were found toshow that children are more sensitive than adults to neem oil.What happens to neem oil in the environmentAzadirachtin, a major component of neem oil, is rapidly broken down.Microbes and light break down the pesticide in soil, water and on plants.The half-life of azadirachtin in soil ranges from 3 - 44 days. In water, thehalf-life ranges from 48 minutes to 4 days. It also rapidly breaks down on plant leaves; the half-life is 1 - 2.5 days. The remainingcomponents of neem oil are broken down by microbes in most soil andwater environments.
Neem oil is practically non-toxic to birds, mammals, bees and plants. Neem oil is slightly toxic to fish and other aquaticorganisms. Azadirachtin, a component of neem oil, is moderately toxic to fish and other aquatic animals. It is importantto remember that insects must eat the treated plant to be killed. Therefore, bees and other pollinators are notlikely to be harmed.
For more detailed information about neem oil please visit the list of referenced resources or call the National Pesticide, Monday - Friday, between 8:00am - 12:00pm Pacific Time (11:00am - 3:00pm Eastern Time) at 1-800-858-7378 or visit us on the web at NPIC provides objective, science-based answers to questions about pesticides.
To extract neem oil, the tree seeds are crushed. Then water or a solvent is added to finish the process. Neem oil can have different active chemicals depending on how it is processed. Some products are made from cold-pressed neem seeds or by further processing the neem oil.
Neem oil also works to control Japanese beetles by preventing them from laying eggs that become destructive larvae. It also inhibits grub growth and repels them from the grass roots. For best results, spray the lawn with neem oil at night and reapply after rainfall.
Whether you have an orchard or just a few fruit trees in your backyard, you can control the pests that ruin your crop with neem oil. Apple trees are often plagued with worms, the two most common being the coddling moth and the meal worm. These pests enter the apples and make them unfit to eat.
If you want to use neem oil on vegetable plants, spray them in the evening and again in the morning. Spraying at these times helps ensure you are not causing any harm to beneficial insects, such as bees, that help pollinate vegetable plants.
You can spray neem oil on herbs, just as you do other plants. Some herbs may be tenderer than others, especially those with fuzzy or hairy leaves, so spray a small area first to make sure they can tolerate the neem oil.
Neem oil is a naturally occurring pesticide found in seeds from the neem tree with a hundred-plus-year history of controling pests and diseases. The active ingredient in the oil is azadirachtin, which repels and kills pests.
Leaf and bark extracts of A. indica have been studied for their antioxidant activity and results of the study clearly indicated that all the tested leaf and bark extracts/fractions of neem grown in the foothills have significant antioxidant properties . Another important study was performed based on leaves, fruits, flowers, and stem bark extracts from the Siamese neem tree to assess the antioxidant activity and results suggest that extracts from leaf, flower, and stem bark have strong antioxidant potential .
A valuable study was carried out to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activity in different crude extracts of the leaves of Azadirachta indica (neem) and antioxidant capacity of different crude extracts was as follows: chloroform > butanol > ethyl acetate extract > hexane extract > methanol extract. Result of the current finding suggested that the chloroform crude extracts of neem could be used as a natural antioxidant .
Azadirachta indica and their active compounds play pivotal role in the prevention of cancer development and progression. The exact molecular mechanism in this vista is not understood fully. Based on experimentation, it was considered that neem and its ingredients play role in the modulation of various cell signaling pathways. Azadirachta indica hold various ingredients and theses constituents activate the tumour suppressor genes and inactivate the activity of several genes involved in the cancer development and progression such as VEGF, NF-κB, and PI3K/Akt. Neem has been reported to be a good activator of tumour suppressor gene and inhibitor of VEGF and phosphoinositol PI3K/Akt pathways. It also activates apoptosis, suppression of NF-κB signaling, and cyclooxygenase pathway.
Nimbolide, a tetranortriterpenoid limonoid, is one of the important contributors to the cytotoxicity of neem extracts . Nimbolide downregulated cell survival proteins, including I-FLICE, cIAP-1, cIAP-2, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, survivin, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, and upregulated the proapoptotic proteins p53 and Bax . 59ce067264